You will find here in appendix of the bibliographic listings of the classification by theme precise and personal comments on the methods implemented and the results obtained during these long years of research (not less than 50 years for the CFAO and the Int. Artificial!).
The 12 themes selected for you are :
a. CadCam and Artificial Intelligence (237 references).
b. The Extensions of the CadCam
1. La CFAO, its history, its configurations(workflow) and relations between dental offices and office and laboratories (75 references)
2. Occlusion (with or without CadCam – 50 references)
3. The Implants (with or without CadCam – 27 references)
4. Materials (with or without CadCam – 53 references)
c. The polymerization (70 references)
d. Post (with or without CadCam – 36 references)
e. Spectro-colorimétry (with or without CadCam – 20 references)
f. Teeth whitening (20 references)
g. Digital radiology (Cône-beam and RVG – 6 references)
h. Pathology, viral infection and biochemistry (28 references)
i. … and various small inventions (7 references)
Since artificial intelligence is in principle the replacement of certain tasks by dedicated software (sic Alan Turing) or even functions adaptable in themselves and in time (expert system), dental CadCam is probably the first medical application (1971) It is certainly one of his finest examples.
This definition is found in my publication (paper) n° 52 and 61.
We must not forget that they were written between 1983 and 1985 when the definition of artificial intelligence was totally unknown to the dental world. That is also why this theme was part of our Chambéry (France) conference in December 1985.
This exciting work theme to accompany all my life as a researcher as shown by my first writings began in 1973 with my graduate DDS thesis and those that are currently published.
This lengthy research can be subdivided into six successive periods:
1.a – My first writings on dental CFAO from 1973 to 1982. . These are the texts that were written before my basic patents of 1980-1982 (I did not know at 20 years old concept of patents). They correspond to a period of experimental research and verification (in Lyon, Tours and then Strasbourg) and theoretical analysis (Lyon and Grenoble with my uncle Bernard). The most important text remains in my eyes my DDS thesis «optical impression», founding document of the digital dentistry, begun at Christmas 1970, completed during the first quarter 1973 and deposited for final correction at the dental school of Lyon on June 25, 1973. (For more details refer to the Web page of this thesis «Optical impression»)
1.b –The second period, or “the extraordinary years with Hennson” (1983-1992). It was the international Hennson company that built the world’s first «real» dental CadCam machine,(please See Video Strasbourg 1990) the Cerec being only a rudimentary cavity copy kart unable to design a surface that does not exist as the occlusal surface is. The development of the Hennson system was a long process that brought together more than 50 engineers in 1990. As early as 1984 this dental CadCam machine was already making crowns and inlays, then came the bridges, the ODF pointer and the caps (1988-1992) in static occlusion then dynamic (France then USA 1986-1992). This incredible achievement would never have been possible without some high-ranking officials such as Gilles Deschelette, Jean Louis Blouin, Jean Pierre Hennequin, my American friend Jean Claude Haas and all my dentist or scientific friends (Raymond, Fabienne, Jean Pierre, Charles, Omer and the others ….).
Many documents have been written (more than 10,000 pages are at your disposal at home), but very few have been published. Having little free time on a personal basis and favouring regular information for our Confreres, we chose to disseminate the stages of our work to newspapers that did not require too much exercise of style (CDF, ID or tonus).
A “live” presentation seemed to us more important and more honest than the selfish satisfaction of publications in an international journal. We have certainly done so (JADA …), but it was always at their request. What seemed most important to us, given the doubts and the immense interest of our colleagues, was to make demonstrations wherever the opportunity was offered to us. (see page “Press Article” or “conferences“)
1.c –The third period, or Sopha CadCam time, is very short (1992-1994). It corresponds to the “sad” company Sopha Bioconcept. I have no particular comment to make except to point out that the Sopha CadCam, too often wrongly promoted, represents nothing in terms of innovation and was only a « pale » copy of the Hennson system.
During the second and third period, from 1986 to 1994, more than 10,000 prosthetic parts were made with the Hennson system and then the Sopha CadCam, in Europe and the USA at the dentists, in user laboratories or within the Hennson/Sopha company in France and the USA. 62 devices were sold (out of the 80 products) and I myself realized on average more than 4 crowns per day, partly on control models, in my French laboratory then that of USC (University of Southern Caliofornia). This allowed me to study the accuracy of the system and connect my digital articulator «Access Articulator» in order to dynamically model occlusal surfaces in gnathologist and functionalist concept.
1.d –The 4th American-Japanese Period corresponds to the “USC-NDU-GC time” (1994-2003).It was a very rich and formative period alongside my friend Akira Kikuchi, a remarkable GC engineer, who unfortunately passed away too soon. It was during this period, from my work at the University Southern California (10 years) and then at the Nipponne Dental University (4 years) that my third dental CadCam system or “GN1” developed in collaboration with Nikon and Hitachi came out, under the very professional tutelage of GC led by a benevolent President: Mr Nakao.
1.e –The fifth period, or period of transition to «techniques without structured light». (2003-2009) was a period of “maturation”. It is marked by my analysis of the theoretical concepts of the CadCam and, on the basis of my past, by a search for its evolution in the future. It is punctuated each year by several fundamental or analytical publications.
1.f –Finally comes the sixth “or Condor” period. (2010-2021). This period is not yet over, as it corresponds to the development of the first scanner (IOS) and the first IntraOral Scanner holder (IOT) without structured light. It is a real revolution and in the same way that I developed the first dental IOS (1983-1985) with structured light called «first generation», I launched the first stereoscopic IOS without structured light of «second generation». We called him « Condor » and the fear he aroused explained the permanent attempts to destabilize him. In fact, if it did not meet the expected success in a digital dental world that had become very competitive, it opened the door to the final outcome of dental digitization: the long-awaited digital optico impression door. This occupies my current period of practical and theoretical work within the company Invis’art …. at age 75 old (in 2022) …
I developed many extensions with and around the dental CadCam since 1973 (for example for the Worflow or the cone-beam). In particular, if we try to summarize them quickly:
(This chapter did not exist on my 2009 site, but I felt it necessary to add it, as many mistakes are made in lot of publications)
a – The Hennson system, (also known as the Duret system – industrial name in mark label) was the first dental CadCam system on the market (between 1986 and 1987), the Cerec 1 which was not a CadCam system was sold at the same time (ref no. 45, 63 , 70, 123 )
b – The Hennson System was intended for both dental practice and laboratories (there were two versions)( ref no. 45, 63 , 70, 123 )
c – The Hennson system invented the Workflow and it was available in 3 large configurations, for dental office (chairside), for laboratory and partly in dental office and partly in laboratory. To be convinced of this, it is enough to read my DDS thesis of 1973 (computer chapter) and especially publications 45 (1982), 63 (1985), 70 (1986) in Europe, 123 for the USA and 153 for Japan.
This is one of my favorite research areas. Worked with my friends F. Jourdan, J. P. Toubol, and Ch. Georget in France then in the USA (the 50 references) underlined led to:
a – the first modeling of occlusal contacts as early as 1981 and occlusal movements in 1983 (CFAO 4D) using Matra Datavision’s Euclid software (ref 54, 62 and 100 or 101)
b – In 1984 we presented the first modelled articulator with adjustment of the anterior and posterior determinants in which we positioned our models (ref 54, 81,95,100 and 123)
c – This will be followed in 1987 to propose two types of occlusions in the library of theoretical teeth and our modeling software Hennson (Gnathologique and functionalist) (Ref 100-101, 129 and 130 )
d – And in 1988 at the Access Articulator, the first 3D articulator actually connected to the CadCam system in 1991 to model the occlusal surfaces of which two prototypes were made by the Hennson company. (n°151 for metal)
This was not the specific focus of my work until I joined DIA compagny (with Drs.Preston, Daftary and Bahat). We modelled a few implants and developed the machining of a false root after extraction (Articles 54 and 55).
a – This work has gained importance through the patented correlation systems developed in 1988 and 1992 (ref. 121-122 and 156-157) used in the Hennson system
b – … and finally my patents in 2014 and 2015 (ref no. 331 and 340) on augmented reality, true representation of the Dental Office of the twentieth century gave it a second youth.
After having developed Eugé-spad with the company Spad and friends of Lyon in 1978 (ref. 19 and 24), I started in CadCam materials .
a – in 1982 with my Uncle Bernard Duret, Mr Mm Granier and R Bossière, it was in the design and then the manufacture of “l’Aristée” the first heterogeneous composite material 3D multidirectional structured (ref no. 78, 88 and 136) in 3D for the CFAO. (no. 136)
b – Then in 1984 we turned to the Zirconia (we think we were the first to have made a Zirconia crown in 1984) before using Dycor, the Empress and other Ceramics. I continued this work on ceramics with GC and Nipone Dentale University until 2003 (ref 100, 154 and 270)
c – This serves as a reminder to those who say otherwise that The Hennson System machined ceramics, composites and metal. It was also the first system to process Zirconia.
Around 95-97, when I was in the United States, it developed an important need on the part of the practitioners: the photo curing lamps became more and more slow and used a 30-year-old technology: the halogen lamp. Brothers were asked to polymerize for more than 60 to 90 seconds, which they refused to do, and the result was a sub-polymerization of the composites.
Following this observation with Guy de Vreese, Bruno Pélissier and H Noui,
a – We developed the first fast curing lamp, the xenon-plasma lamp Apollo 95e (ref 179, 180, 183, 204) … (DMD.Remedent)
b – We then, in my company SEDR, carried this technique on LED « bulb » with e-light and miniLED (SEDR, Acteon) LED(s) lamps (ref 229) known as leaders in polymerization worldwide in 2002 and still produced in 2022 !!
c – Paradoxically, all lamps today offer curing in less than 10 seconds. It is far from the time when we were the shame of the dental faculty for having proposed a rapid polymerization with our plasma lamps! This work, which coincided with my time as CEO of an SME of some 20-30 employees, was marked by 70 publications (often award-winning).
They come directly from our work on Aristée (multidirectional composite for CFAO) and from the imagination of my uncle Bernard Duret. Many people forget it today because they have entered the current practice (ref 139,144 and 145).
a – With Marc, Pierre Luc Reynaud and his engineer Q Chu from RTD, we invented the first carbon fiber multifibre fibers. Very innovative, they dethroned in less than 10 years all the metal lugs. They have been the subject of numerous copies and publications, of which only a few are cited here. You will find 36 references.
b – After the first black “composipost”, we integrated the glass fibers of the Aristée to create a succession of models increasingly sophisticated transparent or white color allowing a perfect aesthetic integration.
It was developed with the SA Bertin and my lifelong friend Jean Michel Decaudin (and his engineer Y Dordet) to perfect the aesthetics in the construction of the CadCam re-enactments before becoming a whole spectrocolorimeter itself (shade-Scan) whose HMI was copied and copied without us being cited.
To convince you of this, I would ask you to go on the video of Aix Marseille (1986) and Chicago Mid Winter (1989). I have no further comments…
It is an invention (2002-2004) that allowed me to use my knowledge in biochemistry, molecular physics and dentistry (20 references). It should have opened a new path in dental whitening techniques if a malicious French (Dr M.) colleague had not decided otherwise out of jealousy.
a – It is the invention of the active bleaching technique, the only one to my knowledge, that my friend Francis Diéras cleverly (as always) called chromophoresis. For more than 300 years, teeth whitening has been a passive act, namely: hydrogen peroxide is deposited on the tooth and it is hoped that it will penetrate it. Having realized that this peroxide molecule is both charged and has a small steric volume, I deduced that it was possible to actively penetrate the tooth by creating an electrophoretic field (and to highlight molecules that have not reacted and dangerous for the pulp by inverting the field) (ref 265 and 282 and 2 theses)
This idea had already come to me at the time of my state thesis in medicine, which used salivary electrophoretic technique.
b – It will probably be marketed outside France thanks to this colleague … malicious.
The first dental RGG was conceived in Strasbourg in 1980.
During our work to launch a new experimental series on optical impression in Strasbourg, in the CNRS laboratory of professors Meyruis and Grosman, with C Termoz and my wife:
a – We made the first known XR using a CCD in 1980. They were presented at the IRIES Congress in Toulouse in April 1982 (ref 30 -page 75-76 and ref 39 and 40). From 1983 Francis Mouyens knew how to develop this concept brilliantly, but it was not the first. Indeed if you read my thesis (secondary impression chapter 9), my patent on the method of seizure of the human organ form of 1983 (ref 50) and my notebooks Soleau (ref 14 and 30) you will find in the text and especially claim 7, the description of the RVG RX before the time.
b – Out of friendship, this exists in business and between inventors, on September 17, 1983 (see letter Soleau at ref 14), I decided to let Francis develop the endobuccal digital RVG (which he will later call the RVG) and to take the paternity. Unlike bleaching, I do not regret it, on the contrary, because he is a smart and good man.
Today, with Covid-19 infection, they are becoming precursors. They were also recognized by the first national research PhD Awards in Paris (1982) under the chairmanship of the great Professor Robert Frank, ex president of the International Academy for Dental Research (IADR) and dean of Strasbourg. They marked my first ten years (1970-1980) of my life as a young researcher before I was excluded from the dental faculty of Lyon for «dispersion». Apart from the CadCam, these are work in chemistry and physiology, bases of my training at the Faculty of Science.
This work focuses on (28 references):
a – On the variation of the molecular metabolism of oral cells in cultures (adenyl-cyclase …fluorine… phosphocalcic) to the approach of infectious agents such as hepatitis or influenza viruses (military hospital – CRSSA – Lyon for 5 years).
It is relevant with Covid 19.
It should be noted that very early, from my originally conjunctival cells, I got an epithelial tissue start with desmosomes
b – on the chemistry of materials (composites, EugeSpad, etc.), which will eventually lead to my work on Aristée, on the fibrated posts and of course the rapid polymerization.
c – My work on the development of a new method of automatic salivary analysis by electrophoresis allowed me to make early diagnoses in the event of the appearance of Crohn’s disease or hemorrhagic Rectocolitis (PhD thesis from the Faculty of Medicine, gastro-entérology Service of Lyon and Tours hospital’s). This thesis will allow me to invent 20 years later the method of active bleaching or chromophoresis.
By combining my work on adenyl Cyclase and my PhD thesis in medicine/BH, I think I have help the idea of endooral early diagnosis with the support of salivary component analysis
My activity as an inventor has been applied in quite varied fields that you will find in this chapter. (7 references)
Let us quote in order of appearance:
a – A credit card with fingerprint memory to avoid codes
b – a process of sealing and reversible filling with V. Legal to allow easier descaling of prostheses, ODF braket’s or root canal treatments. This led us to the study of superconducting materials.
c – A suction/vacum process that, at the same time, rotates the turbines to remove surgical suction and cool the cavity.
d – A process allowing the use of the optical impression with H Noui to facilitate the diagnosis of deafness and to make custom prostheses.
e – A local anesthesia process with H. Noui based on Pelletier effect.